These averages did not change very much from 2015-2017. United Nations (2019), Cities – United Nations Sustainable Development Action 2015, Online: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/cities/, last accessed 12/12/2019. Krekel, C., Kolbe, J. and Wüstemann, H. (2016) "The greener, the happier? Here, we cannot statistically distinguish it from the 45-degree line (F-test = 3.59).  For negative affect, we include whether respondents often experienced feeling sadness, worry, and anger (apart from the US where we do not have data on anger for 2014 onwards). (2014) "The relationship between well-being and commuting revisited: Does the choice of methodology matter?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, 49, 321-329. (2014), and Loschiavo (2019). In this chapter, we provided the first-ever global ranking and analysis of cities' happiness. The World Happiness Report 2019 has just been released. In 2018, there were 548, and in 2030, a projected 706 cities will have at least one million inhabitants. Our definition of what constitutes a city (for the US) is based on the notion of functional urban areas: territorial and functional units with a population of a particular size in which people live, work, access amenities, and interact socially. Eibich, P., Krekel, C., Demuth, J., and Wagner, G. (2016) "Associations between Neighbor-hood Characteristics, Well-Being and Health Vary over the Life Course," Gerontology, 62(3), 362-370. The finding for optimism of city dwellers in the Latin American and Caribbean region is mirrored by high levels of subjective well-being found in Latin American societies more generally. ↩︎, See Dolan (2014) and Dolan and Kudrna (2016). Analysis of the World Happiness Report. With urbanisation set to increase, by 2050, seven in ten people worldwide will be city dwellers. Helliwell, J., Layard, R., and Sachs, J. About 4.2 billion people, more than half of the world's population (55.3 per cent), are living in urban areas today. The underlying problem is that happiness is a difficult thing to measure. Based on the plots, it seems that the importances of Economy & Health are strongly correlated, as well as Economy & Family. Problem: Is the healthy life expectancy predictable? The World Happiness Report 2018, ranks 156 countries by their happiness levels, and 117 countries by the happiness of their immigrants. It is preferable over definitions of cities based on, say, administrative boundaries, in that it is much more representative of the life realities of most people living in a city. For positive affect, we include whether respondents experienced enjoyment and whether they smiled or laughed a lot. How did their well-being change over time? The only European city in the bottom ten cities of how positively their inhabitants evaluate their future lives is Athens in Greece, which may be explained by the recent economic crisis in the country. Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Sidharth Bhushan and Pekka Vuorenlehto for outstanding research assistance. The choice of cities was motivated by selecting the ten largest US cities, all of which have well over 300 observations in the US Poll. I was thinking the same thing when I first stumbled upon the World Happiness Report (WHR). We restrict our analysis to the period 2014 to 2018 and in order to reduce statistical noise, to cities with at least 300 observations recorded during this five-year span. Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest average, next to Southern Asia.  Cities account for about two-thirds of the world's energy consumption and for more than 70 per cent of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. (2017) "In search of features that constitute an 'enriched environment' in humans: Associations between geographical properties and brain structure," Nature: Scientific Reports, 7(11920), 1-8. Arguably, this bottom-up approach gives a direct voice to the population as opposed to the more top-down approach of deciding ex-ante what ought to matter for the well-being of city residents. beginner , data visualization , exploratory data analysis , +1 more intermediate 18 The state of World Happiness 3. Other cities that have seen large decreases are Pristina (Kosovo), Sanaa (Yemen), and Kabul (Afghanistan), which come fifth, sixth, and seventh from the bottom, respectively. For some of these places, these scores may come as a surprise, given the difficult economic situations in the countries in which these cities are located.  To do so, we turn again – in line with the methodology applied in the World Happiness Reports – to the Gallup World Poll and the Gallup US Poll, which include items on positive and negative affect, constructed from batteries of yes-no questions that ask respondents about their emotional experiences on the previous day. The first report was published in 2012, the second in 2013, the third in 2015, and the fourth in the 2016 Update. One way of testing this is to use country mean happiness scores to predict city rankings, and then to look for significant outliers. To explore the factors that could be contributing to the score differences between world regions, letâs have a look at the six factors of happiness for each of these regions. The World Happiness Report 2016 Update, which ranks 156 countries by their happiness levels, was released in Rome in advance of UN World Happiness Day, March 20th. Perhaps less surprising, most of these cities – together with New Delhi (India), ranked ninth, and Mexico City (Mexico), ranked tenth from the bottom – also score low when it comes to expected future life evaluation. Deploying a diverse set of subjective well-being indicators, including evaluative measures such as current and future life evaluation as well as experiential measures such as positive and negative affect, our ranking paints an internally consistent image. In fact, employing well-being surveys allows to figure out the relative importance of different domains in shaping well-being, thus providing evidence-based guidance for policymakers on how to optimize the well-being of their populations. beginner , data visualization , exploratory data analysis , +1 more intermediate 18 Dystopia, by definition, is a community or a group of people or a place that is terrifying or unwanted. Some really interesting features are contained in these data sets. (2018). In this multivariate regression, we find that life evaluation scores pre-2014 are highly significant, while expected future life evaluation scores pre-2014 are not significant. Analysis of changes in life evaluations from 2005-2007 to 2014-2016 continue to show big international differences in the dynamics of happiness, with both the major gainers and the major losers spread among several regions. Yet to some extent this finding mirrors our finding on expected future life evaluation: city dwellers in the Latin American and Caribbean region are not only looking more optimistically into the future than their current levels of life evaluation would predict, but also report higher levels of momentary happiness and joy. Likewise, cities in Egypt (here Alexandria, which is ranked eighth from the bottom) are quite pessimistic places when it comes to the future, and so are cities located in Iran (Tehran, the capital, is ranked ninth and Mashhad is ranked tenth from the bottom). What stands out from this analysis, however, is that this difference is greater for city residents at the lower end of the well-being scale before it diminishes and often reverses at the top-end: residents of cities at the lower end are about 0.5 points happier than the average populations in their respective countries. However, these and other tests are based on very few observations in the World Poll even when pooling the 2014-2018 samples (e.g. The other cities in the bottom ten according to how positively their inhabitants evaluate their current lives are Dar es Salaam in Tanzania (which comes sixth from the bottom), New Delhi in India (which comes seventh), and Maseru in Lesotho (which comes eighth). Out of these seven cities, the scores for six of the cities in the US Poll fall within the statistical confidence intervals of the World Poll scores (Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Miami, New York City, and Philadelphia). Letâs look at how happiness scores changed for each country over time. Stockholm (Sweden) comes out ninth. These six factors donât add up to the overall happiness score for each country in the bar plot because they should just be thought of as weights and the âDystopian Residualâ isnât taken into account. van Os, J., Kenis, G. and Rutten, B. P. F. (2010) "The environment and schizophrenia," Nature, 468, 203-212. van Praag, B. M. S., Romanov, D., and Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. Extracting the data. (2009) "The life satisfaction approach to valuing public goods: The case of terrorism," Public Choice, 138, 317-345. In 2018, there were 548, and in 2030, a projected 706 cities will have at least one million inhabitants. The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness. Figure A2 in the Appendix replicates our global ranking of city happiness for positive affect, Figure A3 for negative affect. Case study: ons 7. Even when doing a univariate regression of current life evaluation scores on expected life evaluation only, we find that it is not significant. The World Happiness Report is a publication of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, powered by data from the Gallup World Poll, and supported by the Ernesto Illy Foundation, illycaffè, Davines Group, Blue Chip Foundation, the William, Jeff, and Jennifer Gross Family Foundation, and Unilever’s largest ice cream brand Wall’s. Rapid urbanisation, however, also imposes challenges: a lack of affordable housing results in nearly one billion urban poor living in informal settlements at the urban periphery, vulnerable and often exposed to criminal activity. This is an important area for future research, with important policy implications for urbanisation and rural exodus. These results imply that the average country happiness is a very strong predictor of city happiness at higher levels of well-being and economic development. If a city lies above the 45-degree line, it has a higher level of happiness inequality than its respective country; if it lies below, it has a lower level. World-Happiness-Report-Data-Analysis. Analysis of the factors that affect the World happiness score and investigation of possible correlations with Python. 2015 includes 158 countries. This chapter explores these questions, by providing the first global ranking of cities based on their residents' self-reported well-being.  Our chapter aims to make an important contribution to benchmarking progress towards this goal and its targets in an integrated fashion by studying the current state of how cities are actually doing when it comes to their citizens' subjective well-being and, in doing so, by casting an anchor for continuous future benchmarking. The report outlined the state of world happiness, causes of happiness and misery, and policy implications highlighted by case studies. We argue that this is precisely their advantage. The first report was published in 2012, the second in 2013, the third in 2015, and the fourth in the 2016 Update. Tradeoffs between happiness and the other dimensions of life in a large population survey," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 139, 60-73. (2013), Ambrey et al. United Nations (2018) The World's Cities in 2018: Data Booklet, New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. The World Bank (2019a) Urban Development, Online: http://data.worldbank.org/topic/urban-development, last accessed 11/12/2019. (Yay for Northern Europe! [âThose homogeneous bastards!â - Adrian]). Stutzer, A., and Frey, B. S. (2008) "Stress that Doesn't Pay: The Commuting Paradox," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110(2), 339-366. ↩︎, See The Economist Intelligence Unit (2019). Kenneth Tay - Instructor Adrian Liu - Moral Support and Witticisms FloMo Dining Hall - Carbohydrates and Proteins. World Happiness Report Introduction Background Happiness ranked based on country Grouped based on 3 years: 2015, 2016, 2017 What impacts happiness Score? Chapter 2: The Distribution of World Happiness (John Helliwell, Haifang Huang, and Shun Wang) In this report we give new attention to the inequality of happiness across individuals. Resolving the urban paradox: subjective well-being, education and the big city. Hereâs to the future! (2017). Krekel, C., and Kolbe, J. It shows that people living in developed countries are more prone to infection of the Corona Virus than people living in less developed countries. However, this is somewhat less the case for countries at lower levels. (2017) "Happiness in the air: How does a dirty sky affect mental health and subjective well-being," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 85, 81-94, 2017. Bertram, C., Goebel, J., Krekel, C., and Rehdanz, K. (2020) "Urban Land Use Fragmentation and Human Wellbeing," Kiel Working Papers, 2147. Today, Tokyo (37.4 million), New Delhi (28.5 million), and Shanghai (25.6 million inhabitants) are the most populous cities worldwide.. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia could definitely use a lift, but overall, the world doesnât seem to be doing too badly. Loschiavo, D., (2019) "Big-city life (dis)satisfaction? It would be interesting to see … Everyone is affected by the state of the economy, especially since it holds direct sway over the availability and security of jobs and the flow of money. The World Happiness Report was written by a group of independent experts acting in their personal capacities. 2017 includes 155 countries. (2010), and Metcalfe et al. Finally, to elicit respondents' expectations about their future, we look at future life evaluation, which is a future-oriented Cantril ladder survey item asking respondents where they think that they will stand in terms of their quality of life in five years from now. Arguably, this makes it also a more democratic way of measuring their quality of lives. Africa appears to contain the lowest overall happiness scores. Happiness is a difficult term to define as it varies from individual to individual. Our ranking is fundamentally different from existing rankings of cities in terms of quality of life, such as The Economist's Global Liveability Index, which ranks cities according to a summary score constructed from qualitative and quantitative indicators across five broad domains. Although the top ten according to how cities' inhabitants evaluate their expected future lives feature familiar faces such as Aarhus (Denmark), Copenhagen (Denmark), and Helsinki (Finland), which rank sixth, seventh, and eighth, and which also feature in the top ten of current life evaluation (ranking second, fifth, and first, respectively), it is fascinating to see that the top ten in terms of optimistic outlook also includes new cities. Other cities that have experienced large positive changes in Africa are Cotonou (Benin), Dakar (Senegal), Conakry (Guinea), Niamey (Niger), and Brazzaville (Congo), which are ranked fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth in our global ranking of changes. Besides their low economic development levels, therefore, these cities are also located in countries with high political instability, a strained security situation, and reoccurring periodic outbreaks of armed conflict. The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness. They are predominantly in Africa, Eastern Europe, or Central Asia. In psychology, there is a large and growing stream of literature looking at how our environment affects our brain structure and function, suggesting that more ‘enriched’ environments that are more complex and provide more stimulation facilitate brain plasticity (see Kuehn et al. Our analysis is purely descriptive and cannot make causal claims about the effects of urbanisation itself on happiness. Hereâs a peek at the relevant columns in the 2015 dataset: It looks like the rankings donât shift around very much for the worldâs happiest countries. Two of the top ten cities are located in Australia and New Zealand: Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, is ranked third and Brisbane (Australia) is ranked tenth. Case study: bhutan 6. The survey is nationally representative of the resident population aged 15 and above in each country. World Happiness Report Analysis. - poshan0126/COVID-19-dataset-and-World-Happiness-Report-Analysis The United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network has published the 2019 World Happiness Report. The three datasets used in this analysis are available on Kaggle. The World Happiness Report 2018, released earlier this month, had some grim news for India. The darker the red, the higher the happiness score. This perhaps shows that people are not quite able to accurately predict their future life evaluation and the best indicator of the future is current life evaluation. There is so much information in this document! This global difference amounts to, on average, 0.2 points on the zero-to-ten life evaluation scale. And there are some shocks in store. World Happiness Analysis Clementine Chou November 3, 2017. ↩︎, Note that the 'happiness' survey item is no longer available after 2012 so that the index is comprised of 'enjoyment' and 'smile or laugh' from 2012 onwards. Our ranking of cities' happiness does not yield fundamentally different results than existing rankings: Scandinavian cities and cities in Australia and New Zealand score high when it comes to the subjective well-being of their residents; cities in countries with histories of political instability, (civil) war, armed conflict, and recent incidences of terrorism score low. 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