Leaf Hairiness: No Hairs. In most of Iowa, it is the only birch which should be planted for ornamental purposes. All rights reserved. Betula nigra, the black birch, river birch or water birch, is a species of birch native to the Eastern United States from New Hampshire west to southern Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and west to Texas. Severe attacks of birch leaf miner predispose trees to bronze birch borer infestation. Another common birch tree disease is leaf spots. It is the most common birch native to Iowa. River Birch is one of the very best and most rapidly growing shade trees, that also has outstanding ornamental bark. Chlorosis of River Birch, Red Maple, and Others; June 26, 2002: Chlorosis (yellowing) refers to leaves that are light green or yellow--not a healthy, dark green. The eggs of the witchhazel gall aphid overwinter on witchhazel, then hatch and feed on the flower buds, forming a spiny gall, before migrating to river birch. As birch matures, bark becomes thick, fissured, shaggy, and gray-black in color. Each year about this time they start dropping leaves and this continues until fall. River birch trees require a higher soil pH than most landscapes in Iowa provide and develop iron chlorosis, characterized by chartreuse- yellow leaves throughout the summer. The veins are still green, while the surrounding areas have turned a bright yellow. The veins of the leaves run directly to the teeth from the mid-vein of the leaf. Sign in Sign up for FREE Prices and download plans The twigs have a characteristic aromatic birch odor and taste. These 1 inch long, yellow-green bodied, black headed larvae, feed in groups along the leaf margins, eating their way to the center vein. Cylindrosporium and Septoria cause small spots with no borders … Birch Problems; June 29, 2005: Many growers plant river birch in our area to avoid bronze birch borer problems seen on European white birch. Although it is not drought tolerant, it still has a high heat tolerance. On some sites, especially wet sites, it is often found growing in pure stands. Patterns of Main-Veins on Leaf (or Leaflet): Pinnate . SYMPTOMS • Leaves turn yellow-green or bright yellow but veins remain green. The principal leaf disease of river birch is anthracnose leaf blight caused by Gloeosporium betularum. The river birch is by far the most adaptable birch species for North-South landscapes. The older trees have deeper roots and are a better indicator of the soil. You must also try to remove the fallen leaves, so as to avoid spread of this disease. ... A small river and autumn forest with yellow leaves of birches.. Betula is the classical name for Birch. Mountain Altai, … The … Leaves of river birch Photo credit: Larry Korhnak, University of Florida. It is one of the few heat-tolerant birches in a family of mostly cold-weather trees which do not thrive in USDA Zone 6 and up. River birch tolerates a wide variety of sites. River birch is drought sensitive and does not like hot, dry summers. It is lighter and weaker than yellow or white birch. It prefers moist soils, but will grow on sites from wet to very dry. • Twigs and branches may die back from the crown. In addition, the river birch is the most trouble-free member of the Betulaceae family. More. As its name suggests, the river birch naturally grows along riverbanks. The leaf of the River Birch is 2 to 3.5 inches long with modest yellow fall color. The winter twigs are slender, red-brown in color, and covered with white conspicuous lenticels or pores. It is typically found along stream bottoms in eastern and central Iowa, but is also found scattered in south central and southwestern Iowa. It may suffer from iron chlorosis on basic soils. Leaf Spots Leaf spots may be caused by a variety of fungi that attack the river birch when heavy or prolonged rains occur in spring or shortly after new growth appears. Leaf Surface - Leathery smooth texture above, hairy on the veins below or nearly smooth. Also, this species is becoming very popular among estates, parks, college campuses, and golf courses due to its handsome bark character. River birch, also called red birch, black birch, or water birch, is the only southern birch that grows in coastal plains. Habitat & Range These different landscapes are usually wet for a portion of the year, but still can be fairly dry during the summer and fall months. The older a tree gets the less lobes the leaves have, so it is safe to say this specimen is relatively young. • Leaf margins may turn brown and appear scorched. Summary Birch leaf miner is a common insect pest of birch. Some trees may have naturalized in the wild from yards and gardens, but several populations in New England are native, and the species is listed as rare in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. These trees also act as a source of nutrients for multiple species like birds that eat their seeds. River Birch Twigs - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, River Birch Leaves - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, ISU Extension and Outreach 1/2 inch long petiole. Habitat: Found in bottomland areas and along streams in eastern Iowa. Late stage iron deficiency in a river birch. River Birch Bark - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. River birch (Betula nigra) is a medium-sized tree associated with moist, rich soils along streams, rivers and swampy locations. The red mulberry leaf is simple, alternate, and finely serrated. The bark of mature trees is scaly and dark red-brown to black in color and often resembles the bark of cherry. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. The species is valued for its relatively rapid growth, tolerance of wetness and some drought, unique curling bark, spreading limbs, and relative resistance to birch borer. The flowers occur in clusters called catkins. ***The River Birch … A small white worm eats out the middle of the leaf, which turns brown. Download River birch stock photos. The simple, alternate leaves have an interesting serration pattern and veins that remind me of parking lots. The leaves are oval, pointed and have doubly-toothed edges. Newer leaves will have interveinal chlorosis, and in severe cases, will form brown spots. Buds hug the stem and may be hairy. When young, the bark flakes into thin, papery pieces that are first orange and white and later orange brown in color. Technically the main differences between the variety and the species are that the variety has fewer vein pairs per leaf (7-9 pairs for the variety and 10-14 pairs for the species) and whiter bark. The leaves make a mess of the yard all summer. River birch is widely planted for its appealing, peeling bark and shiny, diamond-shaped leaves. HOSTS: Freeman maples, silver maple, river birch, Swedish columnar aspen. … Common species of birch include white or paper birch (B. papyrifera), river birch (B. nigra), and yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis). This time of year the birch leaves do turn yellow before dying, but the green vein pattern with yellow tissue is a clear indication of iron chlorosis which river birch are very susceptible to. First you see small brown spots which cover the leaves measles-like. ... Pattern. As you might expect, there can … These trees are also used to control soil erosion and to keep the land stable. River birch is the most widely distributed birch in Iowa. River birch is an excellent ornamental trees. Leaf Width - 1 to 2½ inches. This use is more valuable than the wood products. Black Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) - This is a small tree that tends to creep and colonize an area. nigra translates as "black", referring to the mature bark color of the wild species. I've tried to research what the problem might be, but there seem to be a number of potential reasons. Flowers are monoecious (both sexes of flowers on the same plant); fruit is a nutlet borne in a cone-like catkin 1 to 2 inches long. I have several river birch trees planted near each other. River birch is distinguished by having alternate, simple leaves, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 inches long, 3/4 to 2 1/2 inches wide, sharp pointed, double toothed or shallowly lobed, with a wedge shaped base. Leaves: Alternate, simple, and double-toothed with equal leaf bases. However, it is not very flood-tolerant and may suffer during extended inundation. The insect shows up in mid-May, but timing can vary from one year to the next and will vary according to your location in the country. Minor problems with leaf miner and iron chlorosis which commonly occurs when grown on calcareous soils and other high pH soils. It can be used or trained as a single stem or as a clump. On drier sites, common associates include silver maple, willow, cottonwood, green ash, and boxelder. Color of Foliage in Summer: Green . Christmas mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum) is a common pest in the South. Copyright © 2021 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Width: Varies with species from 35 feet wide to 60 feet wide. Rake up and destroy the fallen leaves. The wood of river birch is used for firewood, pallets, inexpensive furniture, and novelties. The fungus depends on spores shed from the … The leaves are simple, alternate and toothed. Ranging from 40 feet tall to 70 feet tall. River Birch (Betula nigra) Interesting Information About Plant: The river birch is by far the most adaptable birch species for North-South landscapes. 2) Leaf Spot of River Birch - also called River Birch Leaf Blight. Leaf Length - 2 to 3 inches. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. Manganese deficiency and iron deficiency share common symptoms. Often, leaf veins remain dark while the rest of the blade is lighter. Family Name (Scientific and Common): Betulaceae  (Birch Family), Stem (or Trunk) Diameter: More Than The Diameter of a Coffee-Mug, Characteristics of Mature (Brownish) Bark: Patchy Bark, Length of Leaf (or Leaflet): Less than Length of a Credit Card, Patterns of Main-Veins on Leaf (or Leaflet): Pinnate, Change in Color of Foliage in October: Changes to Yellow, Size of Individual Flower: Between a Quarter and the Length of a Credit Card, Sexuality: Male and Female Flowers on Separate Plants, Fruit Desirable to Birds or Squirrels: No, Louisville Plants That Are Most Easily Confused With This One: Cherry Birch, Unique Morphological Features of Plant: Sheds inner bark / Leaf spots. Birches are considered “bleeders”, avoid pruning in late spring before leaves emerge. River Birch, B. nigra — Leaves: broad, wedged base, smooth margin at base, rest is doubly toothed or may even be slightly lobed, 7-9 pairs of veins. 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